Biochar

Deliveries dropout charcoal and biochar.

Our company offers delivery of biochar or charcoal (drop-out) on a permanent basis in the amount of up to 100 tons per week under the DAP Europe or FOB St. Petereburg, Novorossiysk and Vladivostok. The product is packed in big bugs or polypropylene

Biochar not only offers a lot of environmental solutions, it can also provide the farmer and rural communities with a host of real benefits.  These include improved soil quality; greater crop yields; higher fertilization efficiency; reduce contamination of groundwater from herbicides and other pollutants; heat for homes, barns, and other applications; and potentially the ability to sell carbon credits and offsets in emerging carbon markets.If pyrolysis technologies are further developed and refined it may be possible to economically capture energy in the form of syngas and bio-oils that can be used to reduce dependence on foreign oil and gas while reducing carbon emissions.

Biochar could have an even more powerful impact on developing countries where food shortages, population pressures, and declining soil productivity often pose significant challenges.  Simply put, biochar production is a long lever from which we can grab a hold of several problems turning them into opportunities to boost efficiency, economics and sustainability for the farmer.

While the potential benefits of biochar are large, there remain a lot of uncertainties and challenges.  For instance, while using crop residues for biochar production is appealing, how much can be sustainably harvested without having negative impacts on soil quality?  Figuring out means of sustainably harvesting, processing, and shipping biochar without expending too much money or carbon will certainly be a significant challenge.  And determining the best methods of applying biochar to fields so that it is not prone to wind and water erosion is also going to be critical.

It’s prudent to stress that while biochar may have strong beneficial impacts on many soils, it’s unlikely that the dramatic increases in crop production reported for highly weathered soils in the tropics will also be shared by already fertile soils in temperate climates.

The most important challenge for biochar, in my opinion, will be integrating it into already existing models of sustainable agriculture that work to improve soil health, ecosystem services, and biodiversity.  We will need to find out how biochar can work with other methods of soil carbon sequestration such as no-till, cover cropping, manuring, mulching, and agroforestry.

Biochar farming is likely to be largely experimental during the first decades.  Many systems will need to be tried and tested which should offer farmers opportunities for partaking in novel and exciting research trials and a role in developing revolutionary agroecological models of “carbon farming” in which biochar plays a critical role.

BENEFITS OF BIOCHAR APPLICATIONS

Presently, agricultural is one of the most highest greenhouse gas emitting sectors of society.  It’s also highly dependent on huge amounts of fossil fuels to run tractors, make fertilizer, and ship food long distances.  Biochar offers a unique opportunity to help transform agriculture from being part of the problem to being part of the solution.

There are many questions that need to be addressed when it comes to biochar: What is the best method for producing biochar? What feedstock can or should be used?  What is the most efficient way to capture energy from the pyrolysis process?  What is the best method to apply biochar to soils and at what rates?  Despite the large amount of uncertainty—including possible detrimental effects if not used in an intelligent and appropriate manner—the initial data suggest that the potential benefits of biochar to farming are significant.

Potential benefits that biochar offers for farming include:

1. Improved soil fertility and crop yields

2. Increased fertilizer efficiency use

3. Improved water retention, aeration and soil tilth

4. Higher cation exchange capacity and less nutrient runoff

5. Clean and efficient biomass energy production from crop residues and forest debris

6. Combined heat, power, and refirgeration opportunities from pyrolysis

7. Leads to net sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere to the soil thereby increasing soil organic carbon (SOC)

8. Greater on-farm profitability

9. Can be financed through carbon markets and carbon offsets

10. Decreased nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soils

11. Provides powerful tool for reversing desertification

12. Provides alternative for slash-and-burn agriculture

13. Can work as component of reforestation and aforestation efforts

14. Can produce electricity, bio-oils, and/or hydrogen fuels

15. Can use wide variety of feedstock including crop residues such as wheat and corn straw, poultry litter, cow manure, forest debris, and other farm-based biomass resources

16. Acts as a liming agent to reduce acidity of soils

Biochar is likely to have great variation over climate, soil types, and various agricultural land-use practices, and that many of these figures represent initial findings which require more research in order to substantiate.  It is important to note that biochar is likely to have much greater impacts on disturbed, degraded, or high weathered soils than on soils that are high in organic matter content.  For instance, a highly weathered soil in the tropics is likely to see much greater impact from biochar application than a fairly fertile soil in a temperate climate.  Because most of the research that has taken place in the tropics many of the below listed findings are likely to be much greater than might be observed for the Midwest United States, for instance.

CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY 50% Increase (Glaser, 2002)

FERTILIZER EFFICIENCY 10-30% Increase (Gaunt and Cowie, 2009)

LIMING AGENT 1 Point pH Increase (Lehmann, 2006)

SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION Up to 18% Increase* (Tryon, 1948 )

CROP PRODUCTIVITY 20-120% Increase (Lehman and Rondon, 2006)

METHANE EMISSIONS 100% Decrease (Rondon et al., 2005)

NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS 50% Decrease** (Yanai, 2007; Renner, 2007)

REDUCED BULK DENSITY Soil Dependent (Laird, 2008)

MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI 40% Increase*** (Warnock, 2007)

BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION 50-72% Increase (Lehmann and Rondon, 2006)

*Soil moisture retnetion are mostly for sandy soils and could decrease moisture retention in clayey soils.  **Nitrous oxide emission have been observed being up to 90%, but other research has found increased emissions under particular circumstances.  ***Mycorrhizal fungi have been observed having up to 70% greater population levels with biochar amended soils, but have also been observed to be negatively affected by extremely high biochar application rates.

BIOCHAR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Biochar is a light weight, highly porous material with large surface area.  Surface area is important because it affects the soil’s ability to retain nutrients, water, cations, and anions.  The high amount of pore space has lead some to describe biochar as an “unerground reef” material that can provide habitat for microorganisms.

BIOCHAR AND CATION EXCHANGE CAPACITY

One of the central benefits of biochar to soil quality and crop yields is its ability to retain key nutrients including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), along with other minor and trace nutrients.  Increased plant uptake of phophorus, potasium, calcium, zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) have been observed in the tropics.

The exact characteristics that give biochar the nutreint retention capabilities has been observed in Terra Preta but have yet to be fully explained.  The answer likely lies in a combination of i) the physical structure of biochar being highly cavernous and therefore increasing pore space in soils, ii) the chemical property of having a large negatively charged surface area which increases cation exchange capacity (CEC), and iii) the promotion of greater soil organic matter (SOM) levels.

CEC is a measure of the soils ability to retain positively charged “cation” nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) potassium (K), and sodium (Na).  Basically, CEC is indicates the number of negatively charged sites within a soil where cations can be housed (expressed in terms of milliequivalents of cations per 100 grams of soil).In general, soils with higher clay contents have higher CEC, whereas soils with principal components of silt or sand have lower CECs.  Addition of biochar generally increases CEC, although many studies have found that freshly produced biochar tends to have relatively low CEC and that CEC of biochar improves over period of time which can be quite rapid, perhaps as quickly as a couple of growing seasons.

The exact CEC of a biochar is primarily determined by the feedstock material used and, secondarily, by the pyrolysis conditions the feedstock is subjected to.  For instance, biochar derived from poultry litter has been found to have much higher CEC than biochar derived from pine chips under the same pyrolytic conditions.  CEC also appears to be maximized under higher treatment temperatures.

There is experimental research that suggests biochar may also improve nitrogen and phosphorus availability and uptake by plants–two critical plant nutrients which are not directly influenced by CEC because they are not positively charged ions.  Nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions form associations with the biochar thereby decrease the possibility of nitrogen to be leached from the soil into groundwater or otherwise mineralized out of the soil.

Since nitrogen is often the most expensive and deficient nutrient in many areas of the world (and the number one greenhouse gas emissions source in agriculture), this is a critical benefit.  Higher nitrgen retention properties should allow for reduced fertilizer use.

Phosophorus is another major plant nutrient which biochar seems to be able to make more available to plants.  Recent warnings that phosphorus may eventually reach peak production suggest that cycling nutrients efficiently through our agricultural, composting, and waste treatment facilities will be vital and that biochar may assist in the process.

In sum, the observation data gathered so far indicates that biochar may have a powerful role in retaining nutrients and thereby increasing nutrient bioavailability, though considerably more observational data is needed.

BIOCHAR AND FERTILIZATION EFFICIENCY

Greater nutrient retention implies that less fertilizers need to be applied to achieve a given crop yield.  This is particularly important for nitrogen fertilizer which often constitutes that largest agricultural input with some 207 million metric tons applied in the 2007-2008 growing season globally (FAO, 2008.)

Modeling future demand for nitrogen fertilizer, the Food and Agriculture Organization has predicted that demand will outstrip supply in 2011 at some 240 million metric tons.  Further, nitrogen fertilizer use is a significant contributor to global climate change as nitrous oxide (N2O), which is approximately 300 times as powerful a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide (CO2), is often volatilized into the atmosphere at massive rates.

Because the vast majority of nitrogen fertilizer is derived from natural gas (CH4) via the Haber-Bosch process, the price of nitrogen fertilizer is directly subject to the rises and falls in energy market which although unpredicitable in the short-term are likely to rise under long-term time horizons.

Gaunt and Cowie (2009), in an assessment of biochar’s ability to reduce greenhouse gases, have estimated a 10-30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizer use.  Use of biochar has also been observed to reduce emissions of N2O directly from soils by 15-90% (Yanai et al. 2007; Renner, 2007), although one study (Yanai et al. 2007) also found a greater N2O emissions under one set of conditions.

Interestingly, Sohi et al. (2009) have suggested the concept of using syngas from the pyrolysis process to replace natural gas (CH4, methane) to produce nitrogen which could be then be applied to biochar that is produced in the same process to create a powerful carbon and nitrogen rich fertilizer based on the research done by Day et al. (2005).  Small scale nitrogen fertilizer plants have been proposed for Africa in order to boost soil fertility and crop production; perhaps it is time we start to consider running these plants using pyrolysis technologies which would vastly increase the sustainability and lower the greenhouse gas emissions associated with producing and applying these nitrogen fertilizers.  Below I also examine how anaerobic digester sludge and human urine–both rich in nitrogen–could also be used to charge biochar with nutrients.  Use of nitrogen fixing leguminous trees and cover crops in tandem with biochar applications should also be explored.

BIOCHAR APPLICATION

Many people are interested in applying biochar to their farm or garden which can provide an excellent opportunity for experimenting with and observing the impacts of biochar on crop productivity and soil quality.

The first step is sourcing the biochar material.  There are essentially two options: make the charcoal yourself (described later in this section), or buy the charcoal from a company that produces biochar.

The second step is determining the best application methods for your specific area and determining the appropriate rates.  ”Charging” the biochar with nutrients (such as compost, soluble inorganic fertilizer, or other nutrient sources) has been recommended by many.

An important issue that must be considered is whether biochar should be incorporated using mechanical tillage.  Tillage can lead to the loss of large amounts of soil carbon as aeration tends to encourage microbial decomposition of organic matter and subsequent mineralization of soil carbon stocks.  A field that has been under no-till management can loss somewhere on the order of 5 or 10 years of carbon accumulation with a single year of tillage.  Thus, incorporation of biochar using tillage is counterproductive to our overall goal of soil carbon sequestration.  But what if tillage is the only way in some management systems to get the biochar into the ground?  Most biochars are likely to be highly susceptible to erosional processes as it is both light (it has a bulk density of 0.17-0.37 tons per cubic meter) and is often hydrophobic when freshly produced.  Thus, biochar is extremely prone to runoff from heavy storms with its high buoyancy and it’s also extremely prone to wind erosion due to its light nature and to the fact that biochar tends to have a high dust fraction that can be easily made airborne during transport, incorporation, and post-application.

Major et al. (2009), for instance, found significant loss of biochar (approximately 50%) when applied to tropical soils.  Thus, some form of incorporation seems to be necessary.  The question is whether and what specific tillage systems are the best or most effective means of incorporation biochar while trying to minimize soil distrubance and loss of soil organic matter and carbon.

Blackwell et al. (2009) provide an excellent description of possible biochar application methods (in “Biochar for Environmental Management” edited by Lehmann and Joseph) including: addition to solid compost with subsequent application via manure spreader; addition of biochar to manure slurry with subsequent spraying onto or injection into soils; pelletization with manure, flour, and water that can be broadcasted onto field; deep banding of biochar using pneumatic systems or incorporation into trenches; and, lastly, top-dressing biochar where biochar is simply spread onto the soil surface without any direct incorporation.

Work must be done to engineer and implement the most efficient and sustainable means of applying biochar for different agricultural systems.  At the garden level, incorporation of biochar into a garden plot or raised beds should be a fairly simple task.  At the farm scale several alternative tillage systems that may be of interest include the Keyline Plow, organic no-till using a Crop Roller, and the Rotocult.

BIOCHAR APPLICATION RATES

The amount of biochar that should be applied to the soil is still an area of active research.  Many studies point to 50-60 tons per hectare (20-25 tons per acre) as being an optimal rate of biochar production, however this is a very large amount of material to apply.  The objective for biochar farming is probably not going to be applying as much biochar as possible, but rather to achieve the maximize crop production from the most efficient application of biochar.  Dr. Johannes Lehmann has reported that, “With relatively small amounts of 2-5 Mg C per hectare [tones/hectare] of bio-char, significant improvements of crop growth can be observed.”

Increase in plant biomass production as a function of amount of biochar applied. From Lehmann and Rondon, 2007.

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Thus, the grower would want to know where there area of maximal efficiency lies, which will change according to crop, climate, soil type, etc.  This is question of bioregionally appropriate biochar application is an excellent research question for agricultural extension agencies.   In addition to trial plots to determine the actual effects, the use of “decision theory” probabilistic modeling would be an appropriate approach to answering this question.

Invariably it is going to be many years—probably decades—before the exact recommended quantities of biochar are worked out for specific crops, for specific soil types, and for specific climates.  This is also represents an area that early adopters of biochar farming could greatly benefit the rest of the farming community and the world by converting several acres of their farm to experimental biochar additions.  Careful application, observation, and record keeping by farmers–while not necessarily “publishable” in scientific journals–may provide incredibly important initial evidence for the likely effects of biochar in different environments and under a wide variety of conditions.

By pre-charging the biochar with nutrients prior to application we can greatly speed up this absorption process and thereby mitigate any negative effects the biochar may initially have as it tries to satisfy its craving for filling nutrients.  Sources of nutrients that can be used with biochar include compost, manure, poultry litter, human urine, and inorganic fertilizers.  (This is discussed in more detail below.)

BIOCHAR AND WATER RETENTION

The ability of biochar to improve soil water retention is important in light of global climate change as changing precipitation patterns are predicted with increasing global temperatures.  In many areas of the world it is expected that less frequent but more intense storms are likely to become prevalent.  This could hurt agricultural production not only because it will likely increase the number of dry days without any precipitation, but when the precipitation does come it will come in more intense storms which risk increasing the erosion of soils.  Biochar may have the ability to mitigate drought by increasing soil moisture, while decreasing soil erosion and nutrient leaching.   Thus, Micronesia has formally recommended that biochar be considered as a “clean development mechanism” (CDM) within the Kyoto Protocol through the United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD.)

Increased moisture retention and water bioavailability is thought to be a critical factor for greater yields with biochar amended fields.  Generally, water retention is increased as the rate of soil organic matter increases.  Sohi et al. (2009) have hypothesized that additions of biochar may lead to increased levels of soil organic matter which may partially explain improved water retention, and Glaser et al. (2002) found that Terra Preta soils rich in charcoal had 18% greater water retention than neighboring soils that did not have significant charcoal deposits.

Having a highly porous structure biochar is also thought to improve soil porosity particularly in sandy soils.

Importantly, low temperature pyrolysis biochar have been show to have initial hydrophobic (water avoiding) properties.  Thus, research is needed to determine the properties of biochars created by various processes which are important to determine the degree to which they may be able to aid in greater soil water retention and how this property may change over time.  For instance, it may be more adventageous to add medium-to-higher temperature pyrolysis biochars to soils that are particularly vulnerable to low soil moisture rates since these biochar are likely to better at retaining soil moisture.

NOTE ON USING CHARCOAL BRIQUETTES

Briquette charcoals are those which are manufactured to have a uniform size, appearance, and combustion properties.  In order to achieve this uniformity a variety of additives are used .  These often include starches or clays (as binding agents), sodium or potassium nitrate (to speed up ignition), anthracite coal (to provide longer burn-time), pulverized limestone, and sodium borate (i.e. “borax,” to increase burn time.)

While some of these products (starches, clays, and limestone) would probably be quite benign or even possibly slightly positive to soil quality, the rest would likely be fairly detrimental.

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I would recommend against using charcoal briquettes as they contain additives that may be harmful to plants

According to a University of Hawaii study, processed charcoal briquettes can have Volatile Matter (VM) levels as high as 36.4% which could actually decrease plant productivity.  Acceptable levels, according to this study, are those below ~7 or 8% VM.  In short, I would tend to recommend against using any sort of processed briquette product.

“CHARGING” OF BIOCHAR

After you have acquired the biochar, it is highly recommended that you “charge” the biochar with nutrients before you apply it.  This is important: “raw” biochar (straight from the kiln without any nutrient charging) will likely have neutral or even slightly negative effects during the initial phase.  This is due to the fact that biochar is very good at holding on to nutrients.

Biochar has a very high cation exchange capacity or CEC and is therefore able to hold onto positively charged nutrients such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) potassium (K), and sodium (Na), and is also very good at holding onto nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P).   If applied raw to soils nutrients will bond to the biochar thereby making them unavailable for the plant to use (i.e. the “bioavailability” of the nutrients has decreased though the nutrients themselves still remain in the soil.)

If one were to add raw biochar to the soil the long term effect would still be positive, but this would require time for the biochar to “soak up” nutrients until most or all of the pores and negative charges are saturated with nutrients.  Then the biochar would act as a slow release fertilizer that efficiently releases a steady stream of nutrients.

Dr. David Laird, of the USDA National Tilth Laboratory, describes biochar as “a fantastic adsorbent and when present in soils it increases the soil’s capacity to adsorb plant nutrients … charcoal contains most of the plant nutrients that were removed when the biomass was harvested and has the capacity to slowly release those nutrients to growing plants,” in a paper on biochar called “The Charcoal Vision“.

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Close-up of biochar soil aggregates and mycorrhizal fungal associations on plant roots (Richard Haard)

By pre-charging the biochar with nutrients prior to application we can greatly speed up this absorption process and thereby mitigate any negative effects the biochar may initially have as it tries to satisfy its craving for filling nutrients.  Sources of nutrients that can be used with biochar include compost, manure, poultry litter, human urine, and inorganic fertilizers.  (This is discussed in more detail below.)

BIOCHAR COMPOSTING

Composting of organic materials is an essential way to cycle nutrients back into the soil especially on organic farms or in areas that don’t have access to chemically derived fertilizers.  It then comes at little surprise that Eliot Coleman has said that, ”Producing quality compost is the most important job on the organic farm. A lot of the problems I see on farms I visit could be solved by making better compost.”  High levels of soil organic matter (SOM) that come from addition of compost, manure, cover crops, and other organic soil builders also decreases the risk of drought by retaining more soil moisture.  According to one study by the Rodale Institute, organic fields can often outperform conventional fields by 35-100% during periods of severe drought.

Incorporating biochar into an existing composting system–whether at the garden scale or the farm scale–should not be too difficult and may help retain nutrients that would otherwise be volatilized out of the compost, nitrogen in particular which can escape as ammonia (NH3) gas.  Biochar may also likely assist in moisture retention of organic waste piles and increase microbial populations thereby increasing the rate at which materials are broken down into friable compost.

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Biochar composting can minimize carbon and nitrogen mineralization and volitalization (Barry Batchelor, Terra Preta List)

Critical to composting is maintaining a balance between carbon (often referred to as “brown” organic materials with high carbon to nitrogen ratios generally above 100:1 such as corn husks, saw dust, and woody mulch) and nitrogen (“green” organic materials with C:N ratios less than 100:1 such as grass clippings, kitchen waste, and leaves)  For home gardeners a layering approach of adding consecutive piles of green and brown.  ”Biodynamics” agricultural practioners often use complex methodologies for creating rich compost involving the addition of rock powders, kelp, and microbial innoculants which I think may provide a nice framework to developing a biochar composting system.  For instance, see the following description of making compost.  I would imagine including a thick layer of biochar as the foundation of the compost pile would avoid nutrients being leached out, while incorporating thin layers of biochar within the green and brown layers would prevent nutrient volitilization.  (More information below on creating “Terra Preta Nova”).

At the farm or muncipal scale biochar could be also be of benefit to composting.  The use of biochar within hog slurry retention ponds, windrow composting systems, and manure piles seems quite feasible having the same benefits of reducing the rate of nutrient leaching and volatlization.  Use of biochar within poultry production as an addative to the bedding layer also holds a lot of promise (more on that below).  I have yet to read any studies of use of biochar within these types of composting systems but there is strong reason to believe that there would be multiple beneficial effects.

TERRA PRETA NOVA

Dr. Wim Sombroek(1934-2003), former Secretary General of the International Society of Soil Science who is sometimes given the moniker “the founding father of Terra Preta,” was the first to really call for an active soil management program that would mimick the approach of the Amazonian’s had when they created the “black earth” soils.  As a young student of soil science Sombroek visited the Amazon in the mid-1950s and was startled to discover incredibly rich patches of dark black earth.  The rich Terra Preta soils him reminded him of the rich black soils of the soils in his country of origin, The Netherlands.

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“Founding father” of Terra Preta Wim Sombroek excavating a TP site (Image courtesy of Cornell University)

Plaggen soils are a very rich soil of anthropogenic origin found widely over Western Europe (specifically northwest Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Scottland, and Orkney) where carbon-rich peat and sod was used as bedding for livestock thereby soaking up excremental nutrients and was subsequently applied to the agricultural soils in order to proactively improve soil structure and productivity in otherwise unproductive soils (Blume and Leinweber, 2004).

Having been born in The Netherlands in 1934 and lived through War World II and the 1944-1945 The “Hongerwinter” (winter hunger) in which some 18,000 Hollanders died of hunger, Sombroek knew the importance of food and the value of the soil on which it grew to a much greater extent than many of us of ther modern era of plentiful processed food can imagine today.  His family persisted on that which they could grow on the small but rich plot of pleggan soil (Charles Mann).

Before Sombroek died in 2003, he called together a team of internationally renowned soil scientists and gave them the challenge of creating a new Terra Preta capable of solving some of the world’s most pressing problems.  He called this new Terra Preta, appropriately enough, “Terra Preta Nova.”

http://biocharfarming.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/plaggen_soil_uwspedu.jpg

Image of plaggen soil common to Western Europe where “plaggen cultivation” was practiced; remarkably similar in appearance and in soil management practices to Terra Preta anthrosols (Image courtesy University of Wisconsin Stevens Point)

The question now is whether it’s possible to meet this challenge Sombroek laid before us.  Are we capable of creating rich, self-sustaining soils without doing any further harm to the Earth’s already fragile ecosystems?  I would like to believe the answer to this question is yes, yet the real work lies in a) figuring out how to improve soils sustainably based on a bioregional basis, and b) actually doing it on a scale that will make a difference.

Dr. David A. Laird
USDA National Soil Tilth Laboratory

http://biocharfarms.org/farming/

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125 Responses to “Biochar”

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  14. Спасибо. Забавно.

  15. Огромное спасибо за инфу. Автору респект и уважуха.

  16. Оригинальная идея. Только вот интересно сколько время на это потрачено?

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  24. Занятно пишете, жизненно. Все-таки, для того, чтобы делать по-настоящему интересный блог, нужно не только сообщать о чем-то, но и делать это в интересной форме:)

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  27. Хм… Как раз на эту тему думал, а тут такой пост шикарный, спасибо!

  28. Было бы интересно узнать поподробнее

  29. Очень понравилось, даже не ожидала.

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  32. сначала не очень то до конца понял

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  34. Что-то такое слышал, но не так подробно, а откуда материал брали?

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  36. Оригинальная идея. Только вот интересно сколько время на это потрачено?/Прикольный пост, на рсску подписался. Будем читать

  37. Ванна says:

    Огромное спасибо за инфу. Автору респект и уважуха.

  38. Занятно пишете, жизненно. Все-таки, для того, чтобы делать по-настоящему интересный блог, нужно не только сообщать о чем-то, но и делать это в интересной форме:)

  39. А я считаю, что все это верно и очень точно подмечено! И таких мелочей можно накопать тысячу.

  40. спасибо за статейку

  41. септик says:

    Зачет, сенкс автору

  42. I do accept as true with all the ideas you’ve introduced on your post. They are very convincing and can certainly work. Nonetheless, the posts are very quick for starters. Could you please lengthen them a bit from next time? Thanks for the post.

  43. Наткнулся случайно на Ваш блог. Теперь стану постоянно просматривать. Надеюсь, не разочаруете и дальше/Спасибо, хорошая статья. Подписался.

  44. hair dryer says:

    Normally I don’t comment on your posts but I wanted to let you know that since last night I seem to get regular 507 errors on your site. Sometimes the page just loads normal but sometimes I get the error. Anyway I just thought you might wanted to know.

  45. динамично все это и очень позитивно

  46. Пропущено несколько запятых, но на интересность сообщения это никак не повлияло

  47. А я считаю, что все это верно и очень точно подмечено!

  48. Занятно пишете, жизненно. Все-таки, для того, чтобы делать по-настоящему интересный блог, нужно не только сообщать о чем-то, но и делать это в интересной форме:)

  49. Several indeed main couriers on this location, saved to preferences .

  50. Еще бы на эту тему что нить написали – зайду обязательно еще раз – интересно.

  51. Отличный пост – слов нет. Спасибо.

  52. Хм… Как раз на эту тему думал, а тут такой пост шикарный, спасибо!

  53. Чёрт возьми! Круто!

  54. Спасибо за статью, всегда рад почитать вас!

  55. Не понимаю причину такого ажиотажа. Ничего нового и мнения разные

  56. Текст оставил сложное, неоднозначное, впечатление…

  57. Достаточно интересная и познавательная тема

  58. Artist ear rings that happen to be with ton available in the market today are just gorgeous and punctiliously developed

  59. За статью премного благодарен, все по делу, достаточно много кто это использует

  60. Давно искала эту информацию, спасибо.

  61. Было бы интересно узнать поподробнее

  62. Зачет! и ниипет!

  63. Не блог, а поток хороших новостей. Как у вас так получается?

  64. Было бы интересно узнать поподробнее

  65. Хорошая статья. Краткость явно Ваша сестра

  66. Огромное спасибо за инфу. Автору респект и уважуха.

  67. кстати автору хочу предложить установить от яндекс.денег

  68. OPENVZ says:

    И опять об этом. Если поисковики научатся понимать смысл, то блогерам придется поизголяться, чтобы быть читаемыми и не похожими на других.

  69. сумки says:

    Хотелось бы видеть надпись – to be continied…

  70. Думаю, какую полезную информацию можно извлечь из этого материала

  71. Спасибо за пост. Позновательно.Админ я не могу зарегестрироваться может я просто не то делаю ?

  72. Спасибочки, я когда устаю работать перерывчики делаю, к вам бывает заглядываю, так держать.

  73. бляди says:

    Здравствуй! Спасибо за подаренные хорошие эмоции

  74. Спасибо за пост. Позновательно.Админ я не могу зарегестрироваться может я просто не то делаю ?

  75. Можно и поспорить по этому вопросу, ведь только в споре может родиться истина.

  76. винда says:

    Не блог, а поток хороших новостей. Как у вас так получается?

  77. блог знакомый в аську ссылку кинул

  78. Отличная статья Спасибо огромное

  79. Зер гуд ставлю 5 балов.

  80. Бесплатный совет: заведи у себя в блоге рубрику типа “самые горячие обсуждения” или что-то в этом роде. Там можно будет комментировать самые обсуждаемые темы блога…

  81. Жаль, что в Интернете мало находила таких содержательных материалов

  82. я бы кое-что добавила, но по сути сказано все

  83. Разместил это на своем блоге с ссылкой на ваш сайт. Надеюсь, Вам это какую-нибудь пользу принесет

  84. Большой пост Занесу в закладки. С утра прочту

  85. Ух ты, мне понравилось!

  86. Думаю, какую полезную информацию можно извлечь из этого материала

  87. И опять об этом. Если поисковики научатся понимать смысл, то блогерам придется поизголяться, чтобы быть читаемыми и не похожими на других.

  88. сначала не очень то до конца понял

  89. Не блог, а поток хороших новостей. Как у вас так получается?

  90. Восхитительно

  91. сначала не очень то до конца понял

  92. Большой пост Занесу в закладки. С утра прочту

  93. полностью поддерживаю, такие же мысли были.

  94. Было бы интересно узнать поподробнее

  95. Поздравляю, мне кажется это великолепная мысль

  96. Хотелось бы видеть надпись – to be continied…

  97. Well, all things considered…

  98. Отличный пост – слов нет. Спасибо.

  99. А представьте, если бы Ваш блог был бы повыше в рейтинге Яндекса, очень много бы людей прочли этот пост.

  100. А я сейчас обязательно подпишусь на такой блог!

  101. Конечно, мы все с удовольствием проводим время в сети, но далеко не всегда – с пользой. Вот и я тоже. Редко попадается что-то действительно стоящее, что-то, что не только рассмешит, но и заставит задуматься. Этот пост как раз – одно из ркдких исключений, когда читаешь с удовольствием и что-то для себя выносишь. Спасибо автору.

  102. Читая только ваш блог, я действительно расслабляюсь и получаю удовольствие

  103. Должен признать, вебмастер зачетно накропал.

  104. Remarkable issues here. I am very satisfied to look your post. Thanks a lot and I’m taking a look ahead to contact you. Will you please drop me a mail?

  105. Отлично написано. А главное хорошо разжевано.

  106. Hello very cool web site!! Guy .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your blog and take the feeds additionally?I’m glad to seek out so many helpful information here within the publish, we want develop more strategies on this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  107. This excellent website certainly has all the information I wanted about this subject and didn’t know who to ask.

  108. Зачет, сенкс автору

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